Science Categories

Science is a system of objective knowledge acquired through intensive researches that are done by competent individuals in the field of science (scientists).There are three main science categories namely life science, physical science and earth science. Other sub categories emanate of from these three main categories.

The following is a comprehensive list of various science categories in alphabetical order.

Aeronautical Engineering Science
This is a branch of science that mainly deals with the design and manufacture of machines which are capable of sustaining themselves airborne e.g airplanes.

Agriculture is a science that focuses on the tilling of land and animal husbandry.

Algebra is a sub-branch of mathematical sciences that deals with the study of relations, quantity and structures. It involves the use of letters, symbols and other characters in representing mathematical expressions.

This is a broad category of science which involves the study of life. It covers the origin, the structure, the growth, the evolution, the distribution and the function of living things.

Botany is a sub-branch of biology that specializes in the study of plants (phytology).

This is a category of human science that deals with the treatment and diagnosis of heart disorders. Cardiology’s scope extends to dealing with problems that emanate within major blood vessels.

Chemistry is one of the broad science categories that mainly specializes in the composition and structure of substances.

Computer Science
This is a branch of science that specializes in the study of computing and computation of the computer systems.

Dermatology is a sub-category of medical biology that specializes with various skin disorders such as dermatitis, skin cancers, moles and psoriasis. This branch also covers mouth, nails, hair and external genitalia disorders.

Ecology is the study of the interrelationships that exist between living things and their environment.

Environmental Science
This is a branch of science that studies the interactions amongst the physical, biological and chemical facets of the environmental system.

This is both an art and a science which deals with the management and utilization of forest resources.

Forensic Science
Forensic science is a branch of science that establishes legal evidence for court proceedings.

This is a branch of science that mainly covers the heredity and variation of different organisms. The branch also looks into any specific traits that are passed on and on through various generations.

This is broad category of earth science which mainly deals with study of phenomena and inhabitants. Geography’s scope also covers the study of climatic conditions, vegetations, the soil and topography.

This is a branch of science that deals with the occurrence, distribution, chemistry, circulation and properties of water on the earth’s surface.

This is a branch of science that deals with the study of the body’s immune system and the diseases that commonly affect human beings.

This is a branch of science that involves a deep analysis of the behavior of the physical bodies and the impact of external forces applied on them.

This is one of the science categories that deal with the dynamics of the atmosphere and its effects on the earth’s surface.

This is the study of the functioning, structure and disorders that exist within the nervous system.

Nutrition is a type of science that deals with foods and nutrients and the effects of the same on human health and development.

This is the study of physics, chemistry, biology and geology and geology of large water bodies of the world i.e oceans.

This is a sub-branch of biology that focuses on prehistoric life events. It bases its facts on fossils of plants and animals.

This is one of the broad science categories that focuses on the interactions and the properties energy, matter, time and space.

This is a sub-branch of medical science that focuses on utilizing radioactive substances in the diagnosis of various diseases.

This is a type of science that lays its focus on human social interactions.

This is a sub-branch of applied mathematics. It mainly deals with a wide variety of facts and figures.

This is a sub-category of pathology. It specializes on the structure, the evolution, the classification, the pathogenesis and the structure of viruses.

This is one of the science categories under biological sciences. It mainly focuses on various aspects of the animal kingdom eg evolution, distribution, habits, embryology e.t.c


Biology is the study of life on the planet Earth. Biology allows scientists to study past and present life forms with the aid of a classification system known as taxonomy. Taxonomy allows life forms to be broken down by domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. The further the scientist moves down the list, the more specific the classification may be. The basic principles of biology include cell theory, gene theory, thermodynamics, homeostasis, and evolution. Cell theory states that all living things are made up of cells and that cells are the basic components of life; gene theory states that traits are inherited through genetic transmission via DNA; thermodynamic principles state that energy is constant and transmission is not always efficient; homeostasis is the belief that all living things must maintain a constant metabolic state; and evolution is the theory that organisms change over long periods of time in order to better adapt to their surroundings. There are numerous sub-classifications of biology, including ecology, environmental science, oceanography, and anatomy.


Chemistry is the study of the molecular make-up of living and nonliving entities. Like biology, chemistry breaks down large structures into smaller ones to better understand how they work or perform. Matter, molecules, compounds, elements, and atoms are all studied under various branches of chemistry. The study of the states of matter in chemistry includes a number of laws detailing matter interactions; some of the more well-known laws consist of Avagadro’s Law, the Ideal Gas Law, and the Laws of Thermodynamics. Chemistry teaches that everything is composed of matter, which is composed of molecules; in turn, these molecules are composed of atoms. Molecules and compounds are made up of elements from the periodic table, and each element has a different number of atoms. Atoms contain a nucleus and some number of electron shells. The nucleus of an atom holds the protons and neutrons of the atom. Chemistry focuses more on electron shells than it does on protons or neutrons. Similar to biology, chemistry contains a number of sub-disciplines, such as analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and biochemistry.


Physics is the scientific study of how matter and energy interact with each other. While biology and chemistry focus more on the “what” of living and nonliving entities, physics focuses more on the “why.” The laws of physics dictate how people and their surroundings live and interact with each other. Even the passage of time and the confines of space are explained by the science of physics. Basic physics explains how time, velocity, and acceleration relate to each other; how work and force depend upon the mass of the objects being studied; how placement and perception are connected to the theory of relativity; and how total energy is measured by calculating potential, kinetic, and mechanical energies as necessary. The theories and laws that comprise physical science are so vast that physics must be broken down in subcategories when studied in-depth. Specific subjects covered under the blanket science of physics include astrophysics, electricity, theoretical physics, and nuclear physics.