Science as a way of life

Since the dawn of time, science had been our partner in living our life. There are so many inventions introduced to make our lives easier. So far, many technologies have amazing effects and influence over the lives of the people such as internet, cellular phone, computers etc. Of course, these are not possible without the research and development in the field of science.

Although there are so many prejudice about science, having a science lifestyle is a good way in making a more productive life. Using the basic concept taught in science, you will notice that there is a significant difference in your daily life.  For instance, the development in communication made it possible for two people, in two different places with so much distance in between, to communicate to each other. Internet made information sharing faster and effective. There are so many development in appliances and gadgets such as iPods, MP3s and laptops that provide us features unimaginable.

A Science of Human Nature

Three hundred years after the Enlightenment, the idea of a science of human nature is still new to some people. But in those days, it was practically all anybody ever talked about. If there were underlying laws that explained physical phenomena, what laws explained human behavior? Time after time, attempts to agree on the foundations of such a science have collapsed under heated debates about terminology, or this camp’s refusal to accept that camp’s discoveries, or — homophobia.

When Paul said that psychology’s biggest hurdle was homophobia, he didn’t mean that scientists didn’t like gay people. He meant that they were unable to fully investigate their own psyches for fear of the homosexuality they might find. For a science of man (the species) must start with the scientist’s examination of himself before he can ever be objective about other people.

Simple ways to train your memory

As people age, they often notice that their memory is declining. This gives many people a bad feeling. Fortunately, there are some easy ways to train your memory so you will remember things better and learn more.

Aging is associated with the lowering of the functionality of certain body functions. The memory is frequently below the rise in life. People start forgetting or fails with names, phone numbers or other things. For many people this make a bad feeling.

Usually we make the distinction between two types of memory: working memory or short-term memory and reference memory or long-term memory. Usually, the short-term memory weakens with age. The long-term memory, which enables us to remember important events for a long time, will usually perform better.

Social Innovation

Social innovation has several meanings and definitions. However, the term can be defined as a unique solution to a social problem that is efficient, sustainable and just to the common good of the public. Also social innovation can simply refer to novel ideas that solve existing cultural, economic, social and environmental challenges for the benefit of humanity and future generations. In essence a social innovation should revamp and revolutionize the existing order and influence behavior change, perception and structural changes all for public good.

The term social innovation was coined after the inadequacies of the two popular rallying points, social enterprise and social entrepreneurship, to fully create and spur social change in its manifestations. Critics argue that the term social innovation is more encompassing and a better suited vehicle to communicate social change.

The Predictability of Evolution

Ever since Charles Darwin put forth his theory of evolution,there have been numerous debates on the subject from both religious and scientific angles. While religion heavily relies on facts documented in holy books, propagators of the evolution theory use empirical evidence to validate their case.

A study conducted by Stanford University suggests that long-term evolution is predictable. The study was conducted based on the principle of survival for the fittest. In this study,the scientists explain how certain conditions have led a certain bird to develop a particular type of beak. The increased competition for food and the need to crack seeds have necessitated the development of a particular type of beak in the bird. The fact that the beak has changed(evolved) to make the bird more adaptable in the new environment, affirms the point that evolution is predictable.

Science Categories

Science is a system of objective knowledge acquired through intensive researches that are done by competent individuals in the field of science (scientists).There are three main science categories namely life science, physical science and earth science. Other sub categories emanate of from these three main categories.

The following is a comprehensive list of various science categories in alphabetical order.

Aeronautical Engineering Science
This is a branch of science that mainly deals with the design and manufacture of machines which are capable of sustaining themselves airborne e.g airplanes.

Agriculture is a science that focuses on the tilling of land and animal husbandry.

Algebra is a sub-branch of mathematical sciences that deals with the study of relations, quantity and structures. It involves the use of letters, symbols and other characters in representing mathematical expressions.

This is a broad category of science which involves the study of life. It covers the origin, the structure, the growth, the evolution, the distribution and the function of living things.

Botany is a sub-branch of biology that specializes in the study of plants (phytology).

This is a category of human science that deals with the treatment and diagnosis of heart disorders. Cardiology’s scope extends to dealing with problems that emanate within major blood vessels.

Chemistry is one of the broad science categories that mainly specializes in the composition and structure of substances.

Computer Science
This is a branch of science that specializes in the study of computing and computation of the computer systems.

Dermatology is a sub-category of medical biology that specializes with various skin disorders such as dermatitis, skin cancers, moles and psoriasis. This branch also covers mouth, nails, hair and external genitalia disorders.

Ecology is the study of the interrelationships that exist between living things and their environment.

Environmental Science
This is a branch of science that studies the interactions amongst the physical, biological and chemical facets of the environmental system.

This is both an art and a science which deals with the management and utilization of forest resources.

Forensic Science
Forensic science is a branch of science that establishes legal evidence for court proceedings.

This is a branch of science that mainly covers the heredity and variation of different organisms. The branch also looks into any specific traits that are passed on and on through various generations.

This is broad category of earth science which mainly deals with study of phenomena and inhabitants. Geography’s scope also covers the study of climatic conditions, vegetations, the soil and topography.

This is a branch of science that deals with the occurrence, distribution, chemistry, circulation and properties of water on the earth’s surface.

This is a branch of science that deals with the study of the body’s immune system and the diseases that commonly affect human beings.

This is a branch of science that involves a deep analysis of the behavior of the physical bodies and the impact of external forces applied on them.

This is one of the science categories that deal with the dynamics of the atmosphere and its effects on the earth’s surface.

This is the study of the functioning, structure and disorders that exist within the nervous system.

Nutrition is a type of science that deals with foods and nutrients and the effects of the same on human health and development.

This is the study of physics, chemistry, biology and geology and geology of large water bodies of the world i.e oceans.

This is a sub-branch of biology that focuses on prehistoric life events. It bases its facts on fossils of plants and animals.

This is one of the broad science categories that focuses on the interactions and the properties energy, matter, time and space.

This is a sub-branch of medical science that focuses on utilizing radioactive substances in the diagnosis of various diseases.

This is a type of science that lays its focus on human social interactions.

This is a sub-branch of applied mathematics. It mainly deals with a wide variety of facts and figures.

This is a sub-category of pathology. It specializes on the structure, the evolution, the classification, the pathogenesis and the structure of viruses.

This is one of the science categories under biological sciences. It mainly focuses on various aspects of the animal kingdom eg evolution, distribution, habits, embryology e.t.c


Biology is the study of life on the planet Earth. Biology allows scientists to study past and present life forms with the aid of a classification system known as taxonomy. Taxonomy allows life forms to be broken down by domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. The further the scientist moves down the list, the more specific the classification may be. The basic principles of biology include cell theory, gene theory, thermodynamics, homeostasis, and evolution. Cell theory states that all living things are made up of cells and that cells are the basic components of life; gene theory states that traits are inherited through genetic transmission via DNA; thermodynamic principles state that energy is constant and transmission is not always efficient; homeostasis is the belief that all living things must maintain a constant metabolic state; and evolution is the theory that organisms change over long periods of time in order to better adapt to their surroundings. There are numerous sub-classifications of biology, including ecology, environmental science, oceanography, and anatomy.


Chemistry is the study of the molecular make-up of living and nonliving entities. Like biology, chemistry breaks down large structures into smaller ones to better understand how they work or perform. Matter, molecules, compounds, elements, and atoms are all studied under various branches of chemistry. The study of the states of matter in chemistry includes a number of laws detailing matter interactions; some of the more well-known laws consist of Avagadro’s Law, the Ideal Gas Law, and the Laws of Thermodynamics. Chemistry teaches that everything is composed of matter, which is composed of molecules; in turn, these molecules are composed of atoms. Molecules and compounds are made up of elements from the periodic table, and each element has a different number of atoms. Atoms contain a nucleus and some number of electron shells. The nucleus of an atom holds the protons and neutrons of the atom. Chemistry focuses more on electron shells than it does on protons or neutrons. Similar to biology, chemistry contains a number of sub-disciplines, such as analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and biochemistry.


Physics is the scientific study of how matter and energy interact with each other. While biology and chemistry focus more on the “what” of living and nonliving entities, physics focuses more on the “why.” The laws of physics dictate how people and their surroundings live and interact with each other. Even the passage of time and the confines of space are explained by the science of physics. Basic physics explains how time, velocity, and acceleration relate to each other; how work and force depend upon the mass of the objects being studied; how placement and perception are connected to the theory of relativity; and how total energy is measured by calculating potential, kinetic, and mechanical energies as necessary. The theories and laws that comprise physical science are so vast that physics must be broken down in subcategories when studied in-depth. Specific subjects covered under the blanket science of physics include astrophysics, electricity, theoretical physics, and nuclear physics.

Life under water a must see in lifetime

Man had been held in wonder and amaze by sea since ages.Though it seemed a simple from its appearance it held whole bunch of mysteries to be revealed and experiences to be lived. If a calendar or photograph dangling over the wall could seize our attention to dwell over its beauty,imagine what could be the feel if we surrender ourselves diving in the sea only to find peace and solitude.Life under water had been imagined and wondered ever since we were kids through stories and fairy tales of mermaids.To explore under the water is to reconnect with the other world leaving behind the civilization miles away.
Scuba diving is one such activity which would serve the purpose involving a person diving under water with scuba set.There are amazing places in the world which would make people to live their dreams.They include Great barrier reef in Australias for its coral reefs and costa rica for its splendid variety of animal life under water.Bali in Indonesia is charming one with its sea grass beds and volcanic remnants to please the divers but it is the time from april to december when sharks and exotic fishes flourish.

Here are some of amusing and must watch sea animals while people go for underwater diving.Some animals love to be isolated and repel to any intruders while others prefer to explore the sea by travelling.The coral reef is quite contrary to its appearance for being weak when touched.If you want to make an animal to pose for a photograph,seals are ones which out of the curiosity hang around the divers for fun.Among the fishes, parrot fish is the one which would surely make the spectator laugh for it has its funny grin similar to parrot and loves to scare other fishes.The distinct fish is yellowish which reside in the coral reefs in confined area.They protrude their head from burrows and retrace their path amazingly.The sea animals to avoid are the stingray which by eye appeal look like a layer of dough spread over the floor undetected but can harm more then imagination when stepped upon them.The list is followed by Scorpion king which has impressing ability to disguise itself with the surrounding coral reefs.It causes no harm unless privacy is disturbed.
The flora sustaining in the water constitutes the phytoplankton which are single celled and survive over the surface of sea using the sunlight and nutrients which is abundant.The plants could not make it up to live in deep waters as the sunlight could hardly reach.Fetch a handful of water and we will be holding a million of such microscopic plants.Most of plants are indeed the ones with their roots floating around since the avail of light is scarce.
The depiction of such life in movies and documentaries attracted people and made its place in the list of holiday destinations.Adding to recreational activities the life under sea gives a great amount of vital information of past civilizations to scientists and explorers to study so as to document the marine life.It had been important resource for study of oceanography and marine biology.There is boom recently among freelancer photographers for under water photography.But we have went far in taking more than required which the sea had to offer with growth in industries and human actions.The sea food is most opted one in elite hotels and restaurants thus the sea being exploited leaving behind nothing but diminished variety of aquatic animals.Thus a range aquatic habitat had been disturbed.But thanks to ‘marine resource conservation’ implemented by government which aims to preserve the marine habitat.

Immune System Boosters

The most effective immune system boosters

Both, long term and short term sickness can take a toll on your immune system. While the recovery cost of either of them could be different, you can still use immune system boosters no matter what the time is and where you are as long as you don’t feel well. Even if you just feeling a little under the weather or just simply don’t want to get sick, few simple things would be able to reconstruct your immune system. If you are vulnerable to flu, cough and cold frequently, then you certainly need to use immune system boosters. With the help of measures below provided, you will be able to do it.

Rest: The first and the most vital way of boosting your immune system is to get yourself a lot of rest. It includes increasing the sleeping time and resting when you don’t have anything to do. Sleep is an essential part of our life; however lack of sleep is also common in our stressful world. Messing up your sleep cycle will only worsen the matter and research has found that it even causes the risk of heart attack and other related problems. Therefore, consider taking a rest while you can and get yourself a good and healthy sleep to increase the power of your immune system.

Healthy diet: Foods rich in vitamins and minerals like antioxidants also acts as an immunity system booster. Fruits and vegetables containing high amount of beta carotene and vitamin C like oranges, guavas, green vegetables, tomatoes, cabbage, lemons, kiwis, strawberries, carrots, etc. are the most appropriate. Vitamin E is highly found in green vegetables, nuts and many more while Vitamin A and Vitamin B6 with selenium and zinc also assist in boosting the immune system, which can be found in milk, fish, seeds, eggs, oils, meat, and other dairy products.

Exercise: Exercising is considered one of the most important factors in keeping yourself healthy and boosting the immune system. It keeps the blood circulation intact and controls the body fat. Excess of fat can cause negative and drastic effect on white blood cells to defend against sickness and infections. Hence, regular exercises can toughen the immune system boosters.

Natural supplements: There are various herbal supplements are available that could strengthen the immune system. Most of them contain anti bacterial, anti fungal and anti viral properties, which enhances the body’s defense mechanism. Coriolus Versicolor is a supplement that is worth mentioning as it contains no side effects and help remaking and regulating immune system. Few of the herbal remedies that stimulates the productions of immune cells includes ginger, garlic, amla fruit, Astragalus, honey, Echinacea purpurea, turmeric, etc.

Laugh: You may have heard somewhere that laughing is the best therapy. It is quite true as it also increases the power of the immune system. It helps in improving your mood and regulates your blood flow.

Other than the above mentioned measures, also try to avoid smoking and drinking if you do it constantly. With these immune system boosters, you will certainly be able to avoid illness and enjoy living a healthy life.

Try this: Connection conniption!

You will need

  • A plain mug that you can mark
  • Permanent marker
  • Three whiteboard markers in different colours

Making the puzzle

  1. With your permanent marker, draw three small separate houses on the mug. Make sure you spread them out, so there’s space to draw between them.
  2. Now draw three separate small factories on the same mug. Label one factory ‘E’ for electricity, one ‘W’ for water and one ‘G’ for gas.

The three utilities puzzle

  • Three houses each want to be connected to electricity, gas and water. Unfortunately, the three utility companies are having a dispute – they won’t let their lines cross.
  • Draw a line from each factory to each house. You can’t let lines from different utilities touch. Use one colour whiteboard marker for each utility.

Hint: This puzzle is possible on a mug, but you can’t do it on a bowl. What makes a mug different from a bowl?

What’s happening?

This is a tricky puzzle. If you’re having difficulty, it might help to try a much simpler version. Grab a piece of paper and draw two factories and three houses. Then draw a line from each house to the first factory and another to the second factory.

If you look carefully, you’ll notice you’ve fenced off two regions with your connections. One fence goes – factory 1, house 1, factory 2, house 2. The other fence goes – factory 1, house 2, factory 2, house 3.

If you try to add a third factory, you must put it in one of the two regions, or somewhere on the rest of the paper. Wherever you put the extra factory, there will be one house you can’t get to. In order to solve this puzzle, you’ll need to find a way of getting over a line without crossing it!

You will need these items.

Draw three houses and three factories on the mug.

Use different coloured markers for each utility.

Try to connect each house to all three utilities. Remember, you can draw on ANY PART of the mug!

This content is from CSIRO’s Maths and Stats by Email, a free fortnightly email newsletter.

Bone Tumor Discovery

June 7 2013 marked another historical day with the discovery of benign bone tumor. This bone tumor believed to be from the rib of Neanderthal who is believed to have lived more than 120,000 years back in the present day Croatia. The bone was discovered in Krapina which is one of the famous archaeological sites in the world. This is a major historical discovery because the bone happens to be one of the ancient bone tumors to have been discovered in the archaeological records.

Announcement of the discovery

The discovery of this tumor bone was made by an international research team which was led by Dr. Janet Monge, a paleoanthropologist and Penn Museum Associate curator. The findings are also documented on a research paper title “Fibrous dysplasia in a 120,000 years old Neanderthal from Krapian.”

Other people who closely worked with Dr. Monge in the research team is, Morrie Kricun from the University of Pennsylvania, department of radiology, Davorka and Jakov Radovcic who are both from the Croatian Natural History Museum. Alan Mann from Princeton University, anthropology department and David Frayer from the University of Kansas, anthropology department were also part of this team.

Facts about Bone Tumors

In the human prehistory, archaeological records and evolution fossils show that bone tumors are some of the rare discoveries. The earliest discoveries with the exception of this recent discovery only shows discoveries dating to 1000-4000 years back. This therefore makes the discovery of a bone tumor in a Neanderthal a unique discovery.

Confirmation of the June 7th 2013 bone tumor discovery

While announcing the discovery of this bone, which she said was from a young man, Neanderthal, Dr. Monge said that researchers were able to view the bone by use of an X-ray and a u-CT scan. She said that the bone measured 4.5 inches (30mm) long and that it is possible the bone belonged to young man who could have died in his teenage years. This discovery, according to Dr. Monge is going to have some bearing to the current scholars who are interested in the relationship between the modern humans and the Neanderthal  She argued that the discovery is going to provide links between modern human beings and the Neanderthals something that modern genetic studies and archaeological evidence have been trying to justify.

About Krapina Archaeological Records and Past Research

Historical debates mainly by paleoanthropologists have always tried to lay explanations on the relationship between Neanderthals  a species that is now extinct and which is believed to have lived between 600,000 years and 30,000 years back, and the modern humans, Homo sapiens. Krapina cave was discovered in 1899 by one Dragutin Gorjanovic Kramberger, who was the director pathology and geology department in the national museum. Dragutin was also a professor geology and pathology at Zagreb University. Prior to visiting the site (cave), Dragutin was inform by a local teacher about the cave and decide to pay an actual visit to the cave where he found several archaeological artifacts including chipped stone tools, single human molar and bits of animal bones. This marked the beginning of Dragutin and colleagues to start excavation process for six consecutive years in search of the remains of early man. By 1905, Dragutin and his colleagues had discovered a lot of archaeological remains thus making Krapina the first archaeological site to produce more human remains as per that time.

The start of 1990s also marked another historical milestone when the Penn Museum received an invitation to carry out radiographic studies on images of the collections of the Krapina Neanderthal fossils. The team that took part in this study was able to identify a total of 874 human remains which were a representation of not less than 75 individuals. This was the first largest collection of remains from a single point. The number of remains being large, the research team decided to study the root cause of deaths mainly by pathology and disease signs. Their findings were however amazing as they establish that the individuals were healthy. The findings of the study were published in 1999 by Dr. Monge in a book titled “the Krapina Hominids.”

The June 2013 discovery came to put historical facts and records straight thanks to the use of u-CT scans. The bone had earlier on been identified during the Krapina excavations and categorized among the faunal collections.

Science Takes Over Industry

Every so often there is what is commonly referred to as a revolution in the workplace. At the turn of the 20th century it was an industrial revolution that put millions of people to work and helped to make America one of the strongest nations in the world. The industrial revolution lasted for decades but in the late 1970’s it started to lose momentum.

At the turn of the 21st century the newest revolution in the workplace is a technological revolution that has seen workers replaced by technology and newer technology added to the products we buy every day. Auto makers are constantly researching new ways to use technology to make cars safer and prevent traffic casualties. Bigger and better computers are being used to not only help map our universe but also to try and determine exactly how our universe was created. With information like that the possibilities for creating new products and new manufacturing methods are almost endless.

During the industrial revolution the focus was on developing methods to create more products at a faster rate and we have taken those lessons learned and applied them to the new technological revolution. Because the manufacturing processes have already been figured out that frees up research to develop new products to help mankind and reach for information that we once thought impossible to attain.

Technology has shifted the world from a manufacturing workplace to an information and technology workplace and there seems to be no end to the advances and discoveries that can be made. As exciting as these new discoveries are it makes one wonder just want kind of revolution the workplace is in for when the century changes from the 21st century to the 22nd century.

Quality environmental engineering services

PercFor many years now, EnviroForensics has been providing high quality environmental engineering services to hundreds clients from all across the globe. Their personnel are highly qualified and trained to handle various environmental liabilities hence rest assured that you will get value for your money.

We have gone a step further to use comprehensive general liability insurance policies from reliable insurance companies as a resource when carrying out remediation, legal defense and groundwater investigations. All our scientists and veteran engineers not only have academic qualifications but also vast hands-on experience on how to deal with groundwater and soil contamination caused by various chlorinated solvents such as Perc.

True Or False – Aliens Review

Unidentified flying object (UFO), represent any observed phenomenon in the air which can not be determined. The term was coined in 1952 by the U.S. Air Force introduced to refer to a separate class of observations that remain unexplained chronic. The investigation is called ufology. Most UFOs later turn out to be ordinary natural phenomena or artificial light.

Since the late 40 years of the twentieth century the term UFO used as such, especially after Roswell accident, in an official press release was denounced as an observation balloon. Much later in the year 1990 , brought the U.S. Air Force in response to a letter written by Steven H. Schiff and directed to the GAO (Government Accounting Office), a new report in which he announced that the creatures which were found at the crash were actually weather balloons test dummies. These dummies were only developed in the year 1950, several years after the crash. The term flying saucer came into use after the description by the American businessman and pilot Kenneth Arnold of foreign objects that he saw at June 24, 1947.

A 360 Survey Helps Companies Become Strong

Using a 360 survey can help make the work place a peaceful environment. When working in large companies issues can go unnoticed and can develop into larger problems because they are not being addressed. By taking frequent surveys these problems can be caught and solved quickly.

When a supervisor finds that his department may not be running as smoothly as hoped for it may be time to pull out the 360 review. By asking all the employees that are members of the department to participate and also having members of higher management to participate and the supervisor themselves should take the survey.

First teleportation with atoms

Austrian scientists teleported the quantum state of one calcium atom to another calcium atom eight microns (.000008 meters) away. But in theory it may have an infinite distance. The quantum state includes the energy configuration of the atom and its electrons. It is the first time that quantum teleportation with atoms instead of light particles took place. This time it was controlled teleportation.

The researchers captured individual calcium atoms, cooled down extremely – to a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero. Using lasers attached them quantum states of two atoms. The result is a quantum mechanical link, entanglement between the particles.
Then the scientists affiliated third atom in the same way with one of the other two particles. That was the third atom ‘input for the teleportation: When the quantum state of the atoms is changing with the input, the same changes also occurred in the remaining (output) atom.

The Futuristic Vision Of Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla was born on the 10th of July, 1856. His father, an Orthodox priest, demanded the most exacting values and thought processes from him. He had a mother whose creativity and resourcefulness inspired him to become an inventor. From his humble beginnings in the Croatian region, he came to New York and eventually became the man that history will refer to as the genius who brought in the modern twentieth century. There are many accolades to his name. He is considered as the Father of Modern Physics and the True Master of Electricity. He is the world’s most prolific inventor with about 300 patents all over the world.

Possibilities Of Time Travel

Nikola Tesla was tuned into the energy that creates matter. His achievements and inventions, especially the AC motor had a dramatic impact on the 20th century, but he seemed to be more interested in understanding antigravity, invisibility and developing a method to travel through time. Most of Tesla’s ideas were never made public, but they have been used by the government and others to develop new weapons that use radio frequency and particle beams as their source of energy.

The LHC – Dangerous To The World?

Super Collider: the Future of Physics or Humanities Downfall?
In 2008, scientists at the European Organization for Nuclear Energy (CERN) marveled at the completion of the Large Hadron Super-Collider, the largest particle accelerator which spans 27 kilometers in between France and Switzerland. Although designed to further advance the human knowledge of physics, are scientists meddling in a field not meant to be touched by man?

2012: The Mayans predicted the Apocalypse or New Era?

It is said that 2012 will be a very special year, among the things that stand out in this year is a leap year, in addition to a total eclipse, an alignment of the center of the galaxy with Ecuador sky, the autumn equinox and solstice Winter, an event that only happens every 13,000 years, and the completion of the 13 baktun long count Mayan calendar. The Mayan calendar had series of twenty years, and calls each series Katun 20 Katunes (400 Tun = 394.3 years), called Baktun. According to this calendar, December 21, 2012 is the last day of the thirteenth Baktun. The Maya recorded this date as, which is surprising, with astrological events described above.

The LHC at CERN and the dangers of being destroyed by a black hole

It turns out that it has filed a lawsuit ( so that it will stop using the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), which incidentally is not even finished building, as it can cause, according to these experts, the creation microscopic black holes can grow and engulf the field to finish swallowing the Earth.

Investigating the Concepcion crater

The rover spent six weeks investigating the crater called “Concepcion” before resuming its long journey this month. The crater is about 10 meters (33 feet) in diameter. Dark rays extending from it, as seen from orbit, flagged it in advance as a target of interest because the rays suggest the crater is young.

The rocks ejected outward from the impact that dug Concepci?n are chunks of the same type of bedrock Opportunity has seen at hundreds of locations since landing in January 2004: soft, sulfate-rich sandstone holding harder peppercorn-size dark spheres like berries in a muffin. The little spheres, rich in iron, gained the nickname “blueberries.”

“It was clear from the images that Opportunity took on the approach to Concepci?n that there was strange stuff on lots of the rocks near the crater,” said Steve Squyres of Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., principal investigator


Primitive man knew and comets. The brightest are looking good and not resemble any other object in the sky. They look like spots of light, often blurred, they leave a trail or hair. This makes them attractive and surrounded by magic and mystery. Comets are fragile bodies and small, irregularly shaped, formed by a mixture of substances hard and frozen gases.