Ever since Charles Darwin put forth his theory of evolution,there have been numerous debates on the subject from both religious and scientific angles. While religion heavily relies on facts documented in holy books, propagators of the evolution theory use empirical evidence to validate their case.
A study conducted by Stanford University suggests that long-term evolution is predictable. The study was conducted based on the principle of survival for the fittest. In this study,the scientists explain how certain conditions have led a certain bird to develop a particular type of beak. The increased competition for food and the need to crack seeds have necessitated the development of a particular type of beak in the bird. The fact that the beak has changed(evolved) to make the bird more adaptable in the new environment, affirms the point that evolution is predictable.
A different study used computer simulations and arrived with the same results. 128 lineages of proteins were used in the experiment, which sought to find out the adaptability of these proteins when presented with different conditions. The increased competition between the lineages of protein and ligands made the proteins develop mechanisms that allowed them to scoop more of the ligands. These two sets of study show that in the ever changing world, all living organisms will have to undergo evolution to cope with the changing environment. Since change in the environment is inevitable,evolution is bound to occur hence its obvious predictability.
Living organisms upon evolving pass these traits to their offspring. In the example of the bird, its offspring will have the exact shape of beak as the bird. These inherited traits ensure that even the offspring can easily adopt in those particular environments. If the offspring develop particular features in their bodies to make them adopt to changing environment,the same will be passed on to the next generation. These sequence of events further proves the predictability of evolution.